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The investigation and prosecution of serious international crimes, such as genocidecrimes against humanityand war crimes helps to strengthen the rule of law by sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties. It also demonstrates that crime will not be tolerated, and that human rights abusers will be held accountable for their actions.
International Criminal Court[ edit ] Main article: It is the first international criminal court that helps end impunity for perpetrators of severe crimes. It was established to investigate and try leaders of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity in cases where countries are unable or unwilling to do so.
These courts consist of both international and domestic justice actors. They attempt to deliver justice that the domestic justice systems cannot provide alone due to lack of capacity or political will.
Furthermore, hybrid courts attempt to strengthen domestic capacities to prosecute human rights abuses through the transfer of international legal skills and expertise. Reparations transitional justice Reparations aim to repair the suffering of victims of human rights abuses. They seek to make amends with victims, help them overcome the consequences of abuse, and provide rehabilitation.
They may include financial payments, social services including health care or education, or symbolic compensation such as public apologies.
Truth-seeking Truth-seeking encompasses initiatives allowing actors in a country to investigate past abuses and seek redress for victims.
These processes aim to enable societies to examine and come to terms with past crimes and human rights violations in order to prevent their recurrence. They help create documentation that prevents repressive regimes from rewriting history and denying the past.
Truth-seeking measures may include freedom of information legislationdeclassification of archives, investigations, and truth commissions. Truth commissions Truth commissions are non-judicial commissions of inquiry that aim to discover and reveal past abuses by a government or non-state actors; about forty official truth commissions have been created worldwide.
Memory and memorials[ edit ] Main article: Memorialization Memorials seek to preserve memories of people or events. In the context of transitional justice, they serve to honor those who died during conflict or other atrocities, examine the past, address contemporary issues and show respect to victims.
They can help create records to prevent denial and help societies move forward. Memorials may include commemoration activities, such as architectural memorials, museums, and other commemorative events.
Security sector reform Public institutions, including the policemilitaryand judiciaryoften contribute to repression and other human rights violations.This paper presents a brief synthesis of the current state of knowledge on the formation and break-up of the early-Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia, and the subsequent assembly of Gondwanaland.
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